Know the Difference :Diabetes Mellitus Vs Diabetes Insipidus



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There has been a global rise in the prevalence of diabetes in recent times. This year WHO had  it focus on diabetes for the 2016 World Health Day. In this post we would look at the difference between diabetes mellitus and diabetes insipidus which is uncommon.

Diabetes is a metabolic disorder characterized by hyperglycemia(increased blood glucose),polyuria (excessive  and frequent urination),polydipsia(excessive thirst) and polyphagia (increased appetite).This is caused by under secretion of insulin by the beta cells of the pancreas or lack of insulin.

In general term diabetes refers to  ‘’diabetes mellitus’’  of which there are 3 types ; type I diabetes ,type II diabetes and gestational diabetes. Diabetes insipidus is a very uncommon type of diabetes.

While the names diabetes insipidus and diabetes mellitus sound similar, they are not the same.

Type I Diabetes

It occurs due to an autoimmune destruction of beta cells of the pancreas resulting in deficient production of insulin by the pancreas. It can occur at any age but is most common in children and young adults. It is characterized by insulin deficiency in the body.

Type II Diabetes

This is the most common form of diabetes in the world. It is a long term metabolic disorder that is characterized by high blood sugar,insulin resistance, and relative lack of insulin.It contributes to 90 percent of cases of diabetes

Gestational diabetes

It is a condition characterised by an elevated blood sugar above normal that develops at any time during pregnancy in a woman who does not have diabetes prior to pregnancy.

Diabetes mellitus is diagnosed when an individual has a fasting plasma glucose level of over 7.0 mmol/l, plasma glucose of over 11.1 mmol/l two hours after a 75g oral glucose intake, or glycated hemoglobin of more than 6.5%.

Diabetes mellitus has long-term complications if it poor managed. It doubles the risk of cardiovascular disease, stroke and peripheral vascular disease, as well as chronic kidney disease.

Diabetes Insipidus

It is a rare form of diabetes caused by a deficiency of the pituitary hormone vasopressin, which regulates kidney function.

Diabetes insipidus is characterized by extreme thirst (especially for cold water ) and excessive urination. However, the urine does not contain glucose.

There is no cure for diabetes,however it can be treated to relieve you of high volumes of urine output.

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